Tag Archives: Orlando

The Real Cause of Terrorism

The mass shooting in Orlando, while it should probably not be called terrorism, has reignited debates about what causes terrorism, what we can do to prevent terrorism, and so on. Typically, terrorism is called by Islam, or so we are led to believe. However, I would argue that terrorism is brought about by a combination of poverty, lack of education (or mis-education), and anomie. Let’s take them one by one.

  1. Poverty. The causes of poverty are complex and there is no real reason to go into them here. But, the existence of poverty leads to hopelessness, despair, envy, and a desire to escape into another world, or to radically reshape this world. Of course, there are many people living in America and Europe who are (relatively) well off financially compared to people in Africa, parts of Asia, and the Middle East. Perhaps a better term would be relative poverty. If you make $100,000 per year, you are not poor. But, if you are surrounded by people who make in excess of $1,000,000 per year, you very well may consider yourself poor. The problem with poverty is that, to some extent, it is relative. We do not compare ourselves (without great mental effort) to the homeless family desperate to cross the Mediterranean when we think about our financial status. We compare ourselves to the family down the street with the new car and pool. Regardless, poverty or at least the feeling of poverty is a great burden and leads people to feel desperate, to make poor decisions, to want to ‘get back’ at those they feel are benefiting at their expense, to change the way the world works so that you are wealthy and others can be envious of you.
  2. Education. A lack of education or a mis-education, whereby you are either indoctrinated into a certain ideology, or you are at least susceptible to dangerous ideologies. Does this mean that nobody with a college degree could commit terrorism, or an act of violence? Of course not. I’m not trying to be elitist here. What I mean by a good education is one that teaches you to be an active participant in your learning, one that leads you to critically question your existing views and ideas, an education that forces you to think about new ideas as they are presented to you and consider them in the light of evidence and reason. College is not needed for this, and in many cases, does a poor job of providing this type of education. A lack of education can easily lead to a person being swayed from potentially dangerous thoughts into actually dangerous actions.
  3. Anomie. This term in not in use much anymore, but it goes back to Durkheim’s book, Suicide, published in 1897. Surely, there is a more modern explanation for terrorism! I actually think anomie works quite well. Essentially, it means, “no norms”, that is, a feeling that you do not belong to a community, that there are no norms for a community to live by. Imagine if there was no general prohibition against murder? Even people who murder generally admit it’s wrong (typically they try to justify it, “he had it coming” sort of logic). What if we had no social norms for how to act? Can you imagine trying to go to work everyday and never knowing what to expect from your co-workers? Essentially, I see anomie as leading a worldview where you view everyone as an “other”, nobody understands you, you don’t fit in. We know that the people who commit these mass shootings are loners, people who do not have a strong social network, people who feel isolated, out of touch. When you feel like this, it is very easy to latch onto any group that seems willing to accept you and support you, even if they are a violent, extremist group.

Ultimately, I am trying to locate the source of terrorism not in a specific religion or ideology, but in a complex web of social forces that affect all of us. Many people would like to say, “If we only got rid of Muslims, then we would have no more terrorism!” This is facile thinking of the worst kind. Any one of us could be a terrorist, if the right circumstances are present, and if we feel trapped and have no other option. Terrorism is not limited to Muslims, nor is it even limited to religious people. Atheists are quite capable of committing violent, terrorist acts, if given the right provocation and set of circumstances that they are operating under. Instead of blaming a group of people and looking for ways to use our military to destroy an entire group, we should remove the underlying causes that allow these groups to arise.

 

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What is Terrorism?

Almost immediately after the mass shooting in Orlando, people classified it as a terrorist attack and the shooter as a terrorist. However, this has me thinking about what exactly is terrorism and why do we call some things terrorism and other things are not terrorism.

My understanding is that a terrorist attack is considered any violent action that is designed to inspire fear against a community and has some political aims. Lately, we seem to call anything terrorism when a Muslim is involved or the attacker makes a passing reference to a terrorist group.

As we understand it now, the shooter in Orlando pledged allegiance or displayed some affinity with multiple terrorist groups, many of which are actually fighting each other in the Middle East. Not all terrorist groups work together in one big happy terrorism family. They have conflicting goals, methods, political aims, and even religious affiliation (Sunni, Shi’a, Christian, Hindu, etc.)

So, to classify all terrorists as Muslim terrorists or to immediately classify any Muslim who commits an act of violence as a terrorist is dangerous. When we use the word terrorism, it immediately conjures up the idea that there is an existential threat against our country and our community. It provokes a response beyond that which is normal for a criminal act. Suddenly, we have something to fear, plots and conspiracies that threaten our way of life, an act that is worth going to war for and worth curtailing civil liberties.

So, what is terrorism? I don’t have a great answer. But, I think we need to be careful about using the word terrorism and terrorist to explain the actions of deranged individuals.

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Orlando, Violence, and Security

The shooting in Orlando was terrible. I would say it is unspeakable, but the fact that so much has been written and said defies that term. To say that something is unspeakable means that we simply cannot speak of it. As so often in human history, the most terrifying events are the ones that we talk the most about, perhaps rightly so. I join so many others in expressing sympathy for the victims and their families and friends.

Unfortunately, one of my first thoughts (after the shock of hearing the news) was, “How will politicians use this story to satisfy their own agendas?” True to form, within a few hours, we had raging debates about whether we should have better gun control, better immigration controls, more tracking of people sympathetic to ISIS, bigger walls, more surveillance, outlaw the AR-15, or high-capacity magazines, provide more AR-15 guns to the “good guys”, carpet bomb ISIS and their families, whether God ordained this because the victims were gay (or at least in a gay nightclub), and on and on and on.

I was tired before any of this started because I knew my Facebook feed would soon be filled with half-baked ideas, assumptions, suppositions, and all sorts of other ideas that would do nothing to bring back the 50 victims or take away the pain of those who survived.

Better security = less violence. Or so we are told. However, no matter how much security we have, there will always be violence, at least, as long as we live in a pluralistic, (relatively) free, democratic nation. Conservatives want less government, unless more government seems like it would provide more security. Liberals want more civil liberties, unless fewer civil liberties seem like it would provide more security.

After anything like this happens, my fear is not more terrorism, but more repression at home, more surveillance, more detentions of innocent people, more fear, less tolerance of dissent, less tolerance of difference, less openness to strangers, to outsiders, to the other. Fear is easy. Not giving into that fear and continuing to demonstrate our core values to terrorists is hard.

There is risk in anything and everything we do. To live our lives in fear of everything or to demand ever more security measures from our government is counter-productive. This is not to say that there are not reasonable steps the government (and we personally) can take to protect ourselves and mitigate risks. But to completely upend our lives or accept living in a police state means that we have given up on life. Instead we would be merely existing. Breathing, eating, sleeping, and little else. What would be the point?

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